The genetic instructions followed by a living cell to keep the body alive are contained in the cell’s Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Cells will follow foreign instructions if they can read and accept the instructions. Genetic modification or genetic engineering is the science of inserting foreign instructions into a host cell. The process can be likened to successfully inserting a new scene into a sequence of scenes in a film. The result, known as recombinant (newly combined) DNA, brings a new characteristic to the host cell. There are two major commercially recombinant DNA products available for use in agriculture. Their purpose is to enable crops to tolerate herbicide and to resist certain species of insects.
Detection of genetically modified “GM” cotton or corn are necessary to comply with international labeling regulations and to avoid spurious and unapproved GM planting. DNA based analytical tools involving PCR and real-time PCR were used to detect GM cotton seeds (Gossypium spp.) and corn.